Make your own free website on
  Anasayfa   |   EGE  |   AKDENİZ  |   MARMARA |   DOĞU ANADOLU  |  İÇ ANADOLU   |   KARADENİZ  

LIMAN TEPE is a major prehistoric settlement inhabited from the Neolithic (attested for the first time during the 1997 season) until the end of the Late Bronze Age and continuing into the Classical ages as 'Clazomenai'. The prehistoric settlement was discovered in 1950 by Prof. Dr. Ekrem Akurgal and the first scientific investigations were carried out by Prof. Dr. Güven Bakir (Ege University) - the present excavator of the Archaic and Classical Clazomenai- at the end of the 1970's. Current excavations at the site heve been continuing under the direction of Prof. Dr. Hayat Erkanal (Ankara University) since 1992. Liman Tepe is located on a headland jutting out into the sea to its north, facing the Karantina Island, and spreads out into the plain to its south.The site is divided into two by the Izmir-Cesmealti road which passes directly on top of the monumental EBA 2 fortification system with its bastions. Unfortunately, much of Liman Tepe is covered by modern buildings. The excavations are therefore carried out only in those areas which are still open ground.The Neolithic and Chalcolithic settlements are so far represented only by ceramic sherds, lacking any architectural context due to the high water level. The Early Bronze Age is quite well preserved and all the three main phases of this period (EBA I, II and III) are present at the site. Aerial view of Liman Tepe.

Early Bronze Age I


An EBA I black slipped bowl from Liman Tepe EBA I Fortification wall at Liman Tepe
The EBA I period is caracterized by dark slipped ceramics. A strong fortification system belonging to this phase has also been uncovered in relation with the pottery.

Early Bronze Age II


Liman Tepe reflects an urban character during the EBA II period being one of the earliest urban settlements of the Aegean. The town is surrounded by a fortification wall with horseshoe-shaped bastions during this period. A very well preserved portion of the defensive system measuring 6 m in height has been excavated during the previous seasons. Recent investigations carried out under water at the northern part of Liman Tepe has shown that the EBA II fortification system surrounds the settlement in an oval shape and makes a huge projection (c.a.100m in length) at the northwestern end (currently underwater) forming a breakwater for the possible harbour facilities to its south. Underwater remains at Liman Tepe
Liman Tepe EBA II corridor house Portions of a monumental building again dating to the EBA II period have been uncovered during the past seasons. The structure reflects a well known architectural plan known as a "corridor house" from certain sites in Mainland Greece and Aigina. Liman Tepe example is one of the largest structures of the EBA II Aegean. The excavation of this important building is still continuing. Remains possibly representing an earlier phase of this architectural unit have been unearthed adjacent to the EBA II "Corridor House" in the 1996 season.

Early Bronze Age III - Middle Bronze Age


The EBA III period has been attested only in a very limited area with scanty wall remains. Unlike the architectural remains, a distinct pottery assemblage which reflects a smooth transition into Middle Bronze Age (MBA) has been uncovered. The MBA remains have been unearthed both on the northern and southern side of the modern road at Liman Tepe. The remains in the northern part consist of oval shaped buildings possibly of wattle-and-daub, which seem to be a variant of the "apsidal house"s. MBA Oval Houses at Liman Tepe
These structures are always associated with ovens and various goods which reflect certain forms of production at the site. Many artifacts associated with textile production and metallurgical activities have been recovered from this area. Remains to the south of the main road however, reflect monumental structures whose function still awaits to be clarified and the present evidence suggests a function other than production. The earliest phase of the MBA is characterized by "matt painted" and Gray Minyan wares, along with the abundant buff wares. "Matt Painted" wares disappear in the following phases while the latter two continue into the Late Bronze Age.

Late Bronze Age


Mycenaean figurine at Liman Tepe The Late Bronze Age levels have been uncovered for the first time during the 1997 season (except for a well dating to the 14th century B.C. which was discovered during the 1993 season). The stratified remains are mainly contemporary with "LH III" period of the Aegean. The stratified levels and the well have yielded local and imported painted Mycenaean artifacts along with the local Late Bronze Age pottery of West Anatolia. A Mycenaean figurine, stone seals and some jewellery ornaments are among the distinct finds of this level at Liman Tepe.

                                                       design @rzawa