is a major
prehistoric settlement inhabited from the Neolithic (attested
for the first time during the 1997 season) until the end
of the Late Bronze Age and continuing into the Classical
ages as 'Clazomenai'. The prehistoric settlement was
discovered in 1950 by Prof. Dr. Ekrem Akurgal and the
first scientific investigations were carried out by Prof.
Dr. Güven Bakir (Ege University) - the present excavator
of the Archaic and Classical Clazomenai- at the end of the
1970's. Current excavations at the site heve been
continuing under the direction of
Prof. Dr. Hayat
Erkanal (Ankara University) since 1992. Liman Tepe is
located on a headland jutting out into the sea to its
north, facing the Karantina Island, and spreads out into
the plain to its south.The site is divided into two by the
Izmir-Cesmealti road which passes directly on top of the
monumental EBA 2 fortification system with its bastions.
Unfortunately, much of Liman Tepe is covered by modern
buildings. The excavations are therefore carried out only
in those areas which are still open ground.The Neolithic
and Chalcolithic settlements are so far represented only
by ceramic sherds, lacking any architectural context due
to the high water level. The Early Bronze Age is quite
well preserved and all the three main phases of this
period (EBA I, II and III) are present at the site.
Bronze Age I
The EBA I
period is caracterized by dark slipped ceramics. A strong
fortification system belonging to this phase has also been
uncovered in relation with the pottery.
Bronze Age II
Tepe reflects an urban character during the EBA II period
being one of the earliest urban settlements of the Aegean.
The town is surrounded by a fortification wall with
horseshoe-shaped bastions during this period. A very well
preserved portion of the defensive system measuring 6 m in
height has been excavated during the previous seasons.
Recent investigations carried out under water at the
northern part of Liman Tepe has shown that the EBA II
fortification system surrounds the settlement in an oval
shape and makes a huge projection (c.a.100m in length) at
the northwestern end (currently underwater) forming a
breakwater for the possible harbour facilities to its
of a monumental building again dating to the EBA II period
have been uncovered during the past seasons. The structure
reflects a well known architectural plan known as a "corridor
house" from certain sites in Mainland Greece and Aigina.
Liman Tepe example is one of the largest structures of the
EBA II Aegean. The excavation of this important building
is still continuing. Remains possibly representing an
earlier phase of this architectural unit have been
unearthed adjacent to the EBA II "Corridor House" in the
Bronze Age III - Middle Bronze Age
III period has been attested only in a very limited area
with scanty wall remains. Unlike the architectural remains,
a distinct pottery assemblage which reflects a smooth
transition into Middle Bronze Age (MBA) has been uncovered.
The MBA remains have been unearthed both on the northern
and southern side of the modern road at Liman Tepe. The
remains in the northern part consist of oval shaped
buildings possibly of wattle-and-daub, which seem
to be a variant of the "apsidal house"s.
structures are always associated with ovens and various
goods which reflect certain forms of production at the
site. Many artifacts associated with textile production
and metallurgical activities have been recovered from this
area. Remains to the south of the main road however,
reflect monumental structures whose function still awaits
to be clarified and the present evidence suggests a
function other than production. The earliest phase of the
MBA is characterized by "matt painted" and Gray Minyan
wares, along with the abundant buff wares. "Matt Painted"
wares disappear in the following phases while the latter
two continue into the Late Bronze Age.
Bronze Age levels have been uncovered for the first time
during the 1997 season (except for a well dating to the
14th century B.C. which was discovered during the 1993
season). The stratified remains are mainly contemporary
with "LH III" period of the Aegean. The stratified levels
and the well have yielded local and imported painted
Mycenaean artifacts along with the local Late Bronze Age
pottery of West Anatolia. A Mycenaean figurine, stone
seals and some jewellery ornaments are among the distinct
finds of this level at Liman Tepe.